Cardiologists medically manage diseases of the heart and the circulatory system. Some cardiologists undergo additional training to become interventional cardiologists, who use catheter-based procedures to treat structural heart disease. This includes acute coronary syndrome due to myocardial infarction, otherwise known as a “heart attack.” Patients with hypertension, atrial fibrillation, and other cardiac diseases should see their cardiologist regularly. Progression of these diseases can cause devastating neurologic defictits,such as aneurysm rupture or ischemic stroke. Many neurosurgical patients need cardiological clearance prior to surgery or neuro-intervention.