Cardiothoracic surgery is a field that provides surgical intervention for disease processes involving the chest cavity, especially the heart and lungs. Vascular surgeons perform both minimally invasive and open surgical procedures on blood and lymphatic vessels throughout the body, except in the heart and brain. While neurosurgeons perform open and endovascular procedures of the brain, including clipping and coiling cerebrovascular aneurysms, there is some overlap with vascular surgery. Surgeons in both fields are trained to perform carotid endarterectomies(CEA) for correction of carotid artery stenosis. Management of cardiac and vascular disease is important to ensure maximal perfusion of the brain and to prevent ischemic injury. Cardiothoracic and Vascular surgeons also provide access to the spine through thorax and abdomen, for neurosurgical diseases.